F. Tierney Biographical
neighbor in McLean,
bottom & links
IG FARBEN WAR CRIMES TRIALS AT
Tierney was a fascinating neighbor. He arrived in Europe as
Army Lieutenant and
freshly-minted lawyer -- too late to fight the war, but just in time to
become the documentation officer at the Nuremberg trials of the
industrial chemical cartel, "I.G. Farben", which used slave labor to
power Hitler's war machine with synthetic fuel, munitions, artificial
rubber, nylon -- even the poison gas used to kill enemies of the state
and millions of Jews.
me, "IG Farben" was where my father worked when he was a Case Officer
at the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA) Frankfurt station,
later in the 1950s. Because of Jim, I finally looked up what
all the fuss was about. The IG Farben story
is an amazing tale.
IG FARBEN RECONSTRUCTION
After the cartel was broken up, Jim worked with several of
"pieces" to protect their remaining infrastructure, secure scarce
materials, and restore their business and thus Germany's prosperity.
Members of the Boards of Directors at Cassela Farbwerke
(Frankfurt) and Bobingen AG für Textil-Faser
(near Augsburg) gave Jim gifts inscribed in memory of their common work
knew Jim came from The Greatest Generation because he kept insisting he
wasn't anybody important. For me, Jim's generation embodied
greatness Americans can sometimes achieve because he -- one and the
same man from that generation -- could both prosecute the leading
figures of a foreign society for war crimes, and work with others from
the same set of leaders to rebuild their personal and
Jim became a prosecuting attorney for the Federal
Commission (FCC) in 1956, and was appointed by President Nixon in 1969
to serve as the FCC's administrative law judge. After
in 1990, he served as an arbitrator for the DC Bar and NASD, the
National Association of Securities Dealers, a quasi-private group set
up to regulate stock brokers etc. under the
Exchange Act of 1934. New York Stock Exchange self-regulatory
functions and NASD responsibilities were consolidated under FINRA,
Industry Regulatory Authority, in 2007.
was difficult to pry
his stories out of him, but I tried anyway. Jim died 3 May 2009 (obituary). Please mail
your corrections, additions --- and memories. .
SKETCH OF JIM's EARLY
World War II YEARS
parents had little money. Jim
did law school at night and worked days
at the British
which today is known for its airplane purchases -- so many, that it
stimulated the American aviation industry before the US was even in the
war. From Jim's point of view, the action wasn't just
airplanes. The Purchasing Commission was busy implementing
Plan by commissioning the purchase of everything under the
sun, especially airplanes,
ships, lifeboats, lifeboat
divots, tanks, machine guns,
iron or steel that looked like a boat or could be made into one.
grandmother got him
into this historic $35-a-week
completed his law degree at St.
in Queens in 1941.
President Roosevelt recognized that the Fascist forces of Europe
would have to be stopped, but entering the war was politically
most Americans until the Pearl Harbor
attack of Sunday,
7 December 1941.
This illustrates the adage that "Man cannot see the
writing on the wall until his back is against it."
Harbor was Dec 1941, yet France
had fallen and England
was bombed in the Battle of Britain during the summer and autumn of
Lend-Lease provided $50.1B (nearly $700B in 2007 dollars) of
materials presented to the public as a loan or a lease.
did so well as the "bench boy" or go-fer
that the commissioners recommended him to the Henry J. Kaiser
company on Church
St. up around 87th or 90th
office had opened in January
1942. Kaiser was
rich compared to Great
Britain, and Jim’s salary
went from $35/week
would have preferred to enlist in
the the Navy, but Chester W. Nimitz told him
his eyesight was terrible and the
of Naval Personnel (which was what Nimitz ran at the time) wasn't going
any exemptions. Handwritten letters from
Nimitz sell for
$1900 on eBay, a hand-addressed
is $400, so I told Jim to go
autographed letter. Fleet
rose to be Commander
in Chief of the Pacific Fleet in WWII and led the Battle of Midway
and the liberation of Guam.
THE ARMY-AIR FORCE
1942, Jim volunteered to enlist one month early in
the Army-Air Force. After
make his bunk in Ft. Dix
for 3 weeks, the Army
sent him to a
hotel in Atlantic City. The Army had commandeered
the hotels and
there weren't any maids or room service, but real beds were easier to deal with than
bunks in a barracks.
was a shortage of rifles to train with -- the other,
advanced troops got the 1903
rifle, enlarged from 7 mm (about .28 caliber) to .30
caliber in 1906, and called the "30-ought
six" ever after. It
rifle ever made, and
beloved of snipers as late as the Viet
Jim, unfortunately, got the old British Lee Enfield rifle
to this day it was too heavy. The Enfield
is .303 caliber.
TO YALE & GLEN MILLER
poured into the Army, and Jim was
asked to help an intelligence unit
interview new recruits looking not only for criminality
but also for
He was made a corporal and transferred to do more
interviews at Yale
where he lived in
from an old postcard
interviewee was the wife of Moe Purtill, Glenn
Miller's drummer, who was a German American and had to be checked for
Nazi sympathies. After
enlisting, Glenn Miller had established
a band that was billeted on the
University campus (1943-44) along with Jim. Miller's twenty-four piece
which later grew to forty pieces, accompanied the cadets to the New Haven Green for
morning review and
evening retreat ceremonies.
a corporal, Jim went to to Officer Candidate School
(OCS) in late 1943,
probably at Ft. Benning, Georgia. OCS had been cranking out
Wonders" (2nd Lieutenants), but just as Jim arrived
the course was put back to 120 days.
The fun and games included jumping off a tower into a tank
of water to
simulate abandoning ship if you got torpedoed on the high seas. By grabbing your barracks
bag (a lighter-weight
duffel bag) as you went down, you could fill it with air and use it for
bag wound up around his
neck, and he had to be pulled out of the tank, but they passed him
1944: INTELLIGENCE & THE B-24
February 1944, Jim was a 2nd lieutenant on his way to
of the US Amy Air Force in Harrisonburg
Intelligence for combat begins with learning to identify
aircraft as friend
or foe before
shooting them out of the sky. This
was especially important for the heavy bomber crews pointing
at other planes.
more than he ever wanted to about every plane in
the Japanese, German,
American fighting forces, Jim transferred from
Harrisonburg to Fresno, CA for a couple weeks and then on
where many heavy bombing
crews were being trained.
World War II the 2,164-acre Walla Walla Army
Airbase was developed as a training base for B-17
("The Flying Fortress") and B-24
aircraft ("The Liberator"), America's
two heavy bombers. During
years, it was estimated that more than 8,000 officers were trained in Walla
Walla producing 594 heavy bomber crews.
Those crews completed
114,414 hours in
the air while
training. (See http://www.wallawallaairport.com/ownership/history.cfm
thought the base
population overall was about 15,000 people when he was there.
(Contemporaneous air base archival
newspaper material at http://www.wallawallaairport.com/archives/article.htm
is neglected and unsearchable 7/09.)
other WWII bombers were the B-25, small enough to
take off from aircraft
carriers, and the
B-26, used extensively on D-Day. The
B-26 was fast, but dangerous on takeoff if the crew was not
B-24 Liberator has 4 engines, a double tail and 50 caliber
machine guns -- not 30 like the British.
50 caliber guns can tear buildings and other planes to
shreds. The plane
had dual-barrel guns in the nose, in
the upper ball, and in the tail turrets, while the waist gunner manned
of two single guns pointing
sides of the plane.
These are the days before "radar lock" and "missile launch".
If you want to get rid of an attacking plane, shoot it down yourself.
got lots of rides on B-24s and could still recognize Yakima,
and places all over eastern Washington
less enjoyable part of the work was recovering the
bodies of dead B-24 crews
into the Blue Mountains on a weekly
basis, dying only 50
miles away and
often on night training
the dead men were
from local states,
and Jim or others
from Walla Walla
had to accompany
the bodies home,
both to inform
relatives of the loss, and to see to it that the
coffins remained sealed, as the bodies were typically
planes carried up to 3,600 gals of
were typically 10 persons: pilot, co-pilot,
operator, navigator, bombardier, nose,
ball, waist and tail gunners
war effort could sustain one or two B-24 crashes on
a weekly basis out at
as over 18,000 planes were built, although in
several variations. B-24s dropped over 630
kilotons of bombs --
the equivalent of 30 small atomic bombs.
yielded 15 kilotons; Nagasaki's
Fat Man yielded 20 kilotons.)
Note the Plexiglas belly bubble, the mid-ships side-gun
(behind the wing)
and the tail
LATE 1944: OHIO
& FREEMAN FIELD, INDIANA
about 5 months in Walla Walla,
Jim transited through Wright Patterson
to Freeman Field in Seymour
Indiana. A bomber group (40 to 50
aircraft) was formed
and training to go
to the Pacific from Walla Walla,
but Jim was split off from it.
Field was a repository for captured foreign
aircraft, where they were flown, tested, and reverse-engineered
(formally, Freeman Field was home to the Foreign Aircraft Evaluation
Center of the US Air Force).
Enemy radar sets and even V-1 and V-2 rockets arrived at the
AIRMEN: Several all-black groups including
Airmen also trained
there, sometimes with public racial tensions on the base (recollected here, from
American Veterans Magazine for Jan/Feb 2006).
out of their own separate airfields, the Tuskegee
Airmen flew P-51 Mustang
for heavy bomber missions. Often
the bombers were flying into Germany across the Alps and the fighters
were coming up for escort duty out of small airstrips in the foothills
of northern Italy and Austria.
crews who came to love to see the fighter escorts come into sight often
their pilots were
black. This was
certainly the case for
one disabled B-24
crew shot up over Linz,
and forced to
make an emergency
landing on small
airstrip off the Adriatic in
northern Italy. Everyone that
rushed out to help the
disabled plane was black. On
occasion, one crew member refused to sleep in the black sleeping
today, you couldn’t keep these men away from their reunions together. http://www.af.mil/news/airman/0202/crew.html
Freeman Field, Jim
liked running around on a forklift and was
caught stacking aircraft
upbraided because "officers don't work".
Jim made it to 1st Lieutenant anyway.
move from Walla Wall WASH
pointed Jim away from the
Pacific Theater and towards Europe.
Jan 1945: OFF
to First Lieutenant, Jim
was sent through France
(with a brief visit to Paris)
then to Germany. Luxury transportation into
C-47, a noisy 2
engine plane with bucket
seats. With the Rhein-Main
bombed out of existence,
the rough flight ended with a rougher landing at a
airstrip. Fighting ended in Europe only in the
first half of May, 1945.
MAJOR GENERAL WILLIAM DRAPER
divided into four
occupied sectors, each
with a military governor from one of the
These four governors together formed the Allied Kommandatura, which governed Berlin. Four flags flew
from the building, and guards from four nations' armed forced stood in
Jim walked from where he lived to where he worked with
Draper, he passed the Kommandatura
building and everyone saluted him.
Allied Kommandatura was located in Dahlem/Zehlendorf, at 16-18
Kaiserswerther Strasse & Thielallee. It was returned
Freie Universität Berlin, whose campus is in the neighborhood.
The Allied Control Council (ACA) occupied the much larger
the German Supreme Court of Prussia, the 'Kammergericht'. (It
became the Kammergericht once again in 1994.) The
governed Berlin, the ACA governed Germany as a whole, and, within the
ACA, the US Zone was governed by OMGUS, the Office
of Military Government, United States, under General Lucius D. Clay
The Americans, British,
French worked well enough
together, but the Soviet general (Marshal Vasily Sokolovsky) walked out
of the Allied Control
June of 1948 (the last meeting he attended was in March).. The other
never officially accepted this walkout, and so, until the building was
given to the Free University of Berlin, you could see
the Russian flag still flying over the front door.
met his Russian counterparts on the de-cartellization commission and
partied afterwards at the Harnack Haus, home to the officers
canteen and many formal dances. Drinking with his Russian
counterpart meant standing to give (or receive) a toast, and downing a
shot of vodka in one gulp, if humanly possible. Jim was never
great drinker, but persisted because he enjoyed watching his opposite
number soften and start to share "comradeship" with a little "C".
Harnack Haus, now
returned to the Max Planck Gesellschaft, successor to
the Kaiser Wilhelm
With the founding of the Federal
Republic of German ("West Germany") in May, 1949, the
three western allies formed the successor to the ACA, namely
the High Commission of Germany. (JIN:
The High Commission
of German gave the
housing project where I lived as a child in Frankfurt
from 1952-57 its name, “HiCoG.
Americans still lived there in 1967, when I asked a lady
walking her dog
if it was still called “Hicog”. She
yes. “Do you know
that stand for?” “I
don’t know, just Hicog.")
Tierney in Germany, ca. 1947
Gen. William Draper said Jim was needed at the
Allied I.G. Farben Control
offices, so Jim went to Griesheim just outside of Frankfurt. (Jim, do you have a better
name than "Allied
I.G. Farben Control
developing Zyklon B poison for the gas chambers,
I. G. Farben used SS
troops to run slave
labor camps, notably the buna rubber factory that
was a satellite to the Auschwitz
concentration camp. 25,000
worked to death before they could get to the gas chambers for extermination.
I.G. Farben company
and the Hitler regime cooperated closely
on the financing, manufacture and supply of much war
For this reason, the U.S.
wanted to break up the giant chemical industry cartel, convict its officers, and denazify
what remained. Jim
was needed to gather documentation for
many billions in aid were given by the Federal
Republic of Germany in reparations to Jews for confiscated property and
wages of slave labor? Justice
imperfect, and the Germany Embassy turned repeatedly to the lawyer Peter Heidenberger as claims
validity were filed in the United
against Germany. Peter, as chance would
have it, turned out to
be a neighbor at Gwen and Jim’s beach house in Bethany Beach, DE.
more on Peter Heidenberger, see: From Munich to Washington: A
Kabel Publishers Inc.. Rockville,
2004, 177pp. (Kabel Publishers Inc.. 11225
Huntover Dr, Rockville,
MD 20852-3613; tel/fax 301/468-6463)
1947-48: THE I.G.
FARBEN TRIAL AT NUREMBERG
G. Farben was broken up in 1952 into:
Werke Hüls AG, now Chemiepark
Kupferhütte AG, Kalle
you can see, it was a pretty big outfit.
Nuremberg Trials courtroom
I.G. Farben Trial at Nuremberg was held from 27 August 1947 to 30 July
I. G. Farben executives came to trial in the
Nuremberg Trials and 12 or 13 received prison sentences. The executives who set up
III camp for buna
where 25,000 people were killed got 6
years prison time for "enslavement".
They were Carl Frauch and Heinrch Buetefisch,
Director of IG Auschwitz; see http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/IG_Farben).
E. Dubois, Jr. was the deputy chief of counsel
for War Crimes in charge of the I.G. Farben case. Dubois wrote the
Devil’s Chemists (1952;
republished as Generals
in Grey Suits, 1953).
DuBois's book is critical
outcome of the trial, and of Justice Morris's impact on it. According to
Joseph Borkin, the author of The
Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben
(1978), as DuBois left the courtroom after the decision, he declared:
"I'll write a book about this if it's the last thing I ever do."
book is available on the Web:
for the first half of the book, up
to page 121 and http://www.spitfirelist.com/Books/dubois02a.pdf for pp 122 - end The
illustrations come after
defendants at trial in Nuremberg
like Dubois, cites Justice Morris for being
impatient with the prosecution: Borkin writes that Morris
irritation with the proceedings"
and scolded the prosecutor: "This trial is being slowed down by a mass of contracts,
minutes and letters
that seem to have such slight bearing
any possible concept of proof in this case."
a modern scholarly treatment, see
man who particularly wanted Jim was Edwin S.
Pilsbury, a wealthy lawyer from
who told him, "Jim, we need you to take care of building up documentation for
trials at Nuremberg."
says, "The Germans convicted themselves. They
made copies of everything. They saved their copies in
salt mines. I went
there and told the
employees, 'Don't remove anything'.
Every document ended with 'Heil
Hitler' at the bottom."
prosecution table. From
DuBois’ book, The
Jim Tierney is the left-most of the three men
in the rear, listening to their simultaneous translation earphone. We could make a better scan
of this photo if
someone would dig out Jim's copy of DuBois’s book.
NUREMBERG TRIALS -- The I.G. Farben Case 27Aug1947 - 30Jul1948
proceedings run to 1400 pages and were available
from the Government Printing
TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS
THE NUREMBERG MILITARY TRIBUNALS UNDER CONTROL COUNCIL LAW No. 10 VOLUME VII
1946 _ APRIL 1949
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1953
For sale by the
Superintendent of Documents, U. S Government Printing
Office Washington 25, D.C. - Price $4.75 (Buckram)
Web access: The Mazal Library,
or search in Google on
" related:www.mazal.org/NMT-HOME.htm "
complexities revealed by the trial at Nuremberg
of the I.G. Farben industrial cartel is thought by many to have been
Eisenhower's inspiration for his famous pronouncement upon
presidency in 1961:
councils of Government, we must
guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought
unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the
rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the
of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes.
TRIALS OUTSIDE NUREMBERG
says there were about 30 war crimes trials outside
of Nuremberg. Whereas Nuremberg
was run by the 4 Allied powers, the Americans alone
pursued such cases as the trial of Ilse Koch, the
"Bitch of Buchenwald," an SS officer's
wife who made lampshades out of the skins of prisoners,
early after the war, there were also some extralegal executions.
Petty tyrants too small for the Americans to prosecute were
released, but sometimes they were released to partisans who took them
to a Displaced Persons camp whose residents knew them very
Jim indicated they were promptly executed (murdered).
had never witnessed such an event in the camps, demurred that it was
mob violence, and said he believed the people in the camp were
immediately assembled, the person publicly accused, and shot on the
spot. (JIN: I had never heard of revenge killings
Concentration camp survivors more often say they must not
the level of their captors.)
was sent by my colonel to Munich
and passed the former Dachau concentration camp,
liberated by the 3rd
Army. The people
had nowhere to go
and were living in "DP Camps"
(Displaced Persons) near the old
several concentration camps in the Western
(American Zone, prosecution late 1945),
(British Zone, prosecution Nov 1945),
"At Stalin's request, thousands of Russian
POWs were forcibly returned to
in 1945 by the Americans. The
were in handcuffs and leg irons,
they would rather run up on your bayonet and kill themselves than go back.
We loaded them onto transport cars.
What a terrible mistake.
they got back to Russia,
they were either killed or sent to Siberia."
“A German Jew who came to America
as the war broke out returned to Germany
and participated in both the Nuremberg
trial of IG Farben and he worked
afterwards as the company was split and its parts
He was a lawyer in Berlin
and certainly knew German
law because he
taught it. In America,
he went the NYU
Law School. He went by the
name Randolph Newman in America,
and Rudolph Neumann in Germany. We were responsible for
of this industrial cartel, and this Jewish man overruled me. I would say ‘This man is a
Nazi and we have
the documents to show it’ and Newman or Neumann would say he was just a businessman, he
is so patrician. He
overruled me and let Nazi businessmen back
into German business.”
It seemed clear from Jim's
description that Newman longed for acceptance by the high
social elites he himself had once seemingly entered in liberal
Berlin, but ultimately had to
flee. In Marburg, Germany, the city tour guide
to us in the '80s a building which written records
Jewish property going back over 300 years. Three hundred
longer than my country has existed as a nation, yet the German nation
turned on these, its own citizens, and rounded them up for
extermination. We can share Jim's eternal frustration with
superior Newman, but we should pause to reflect on the depth of the
man's confusion -- confusion about justice, loyalty, and even his own
F. Tierney in Germany ca. 1949
RE-INDUSTRIALIZATION AS THE COLD WAR LOOMS
faced starvation, a rising infant mortality rate, and limited resources
thousands of unproductive people trapped in “”DP” (Displaced Persons)
of their of shacks and sheds and resettled into working, productive
lives. (JIN: A
fourth-grade outing of my
Army-American grade school took us to see a DP camp first hand. As late as 1953, it was
shanty-town of cold, muddy streets.
I understood why our parents were always holding charity events for
person resettlement” funds. But what I remember most was
teacher trying to explain to the kids literally hanging on her skirts
afterwards, stunned and asking her, “Why do they have children if they
live like that?” She
looked straight at
us and said, “Because maybe they think it can make them happy.” She hoped we would
smiled patiently hoping we would
understand but we were young. There was nothing more
Russians unbolted everything in East
Germany they could and
shipped it east. Russia’s
“bleed it white” policy also depopulated the rural countryside, a
change which the CIA tracked by counting newspaper reports of children
even adults – killed by growing packs of wolves.
The French also confiscated industrial infrastructure,
while the British and especially the Americans increasingly saw the
need to get
prosperous again. The
initial intent –
before the Marshal plan – was to convert Germany
to an agrarian economy and save the world from war, which it was
Germans knew how to start.
Allied plans shifted to re-industrialization,
people were needed to supervise Germany’s largest, most powerful
industrial corporate entities, to help them re-build and to ensure that
same bad players did not rise within them (“de-nazification”). Jim was one of the people
tapped to perform
this role, and he was urged to leave the Army and immediately re-enter
government service as a civilian.
had an inside-out familiarity with the most powerful chemical industry
his work as “documentation
the Nuremberg Trial
of Germany’s giants of the
chemical industry. He
became a true industry insider and wound up supervising many
largest players in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries.
when did you leave the Army? Did
you go home and come back?
What rank did they give you to come back in?
1945 to 1951, Jim supervised 45-50 different
companies in the U.S. Zone and in the U.S. Sector of Berlin. His authority was in some
respects above the
position of CEO and Chairman of the Board, as he was empowered to pass
was appointed to either position. (JIN: It's a pity our own banking
industry has been handed over a trillion dollars with less supervision
than this.) His
“supervision” included protection and procurement.
For each company under his care, Jim was the
best liaison channel to
Forces. Jim was in
a position to deflect
scarce supplies to “his” plants or secure needed transportation.
Nylon or Perlon? There was competition and cross-licensing
between DuPont and BASF over these two nylon variants
even before World War II. Jim's support enabled Perlon to emerge
as an early, successful driver of economic recovery in
Germany's post-war industrial chemical industries.
least two companies’ top officials were moved to give
Jim tokens of their appreciation for successful governance and
when Jim left in 1951.
Coffee service given
by Cassela Farbwerke Mainkur (a former unit of the I.G.
Farben cartel in Nazi Germany) to the young American serviceman and
lawyer who supervised their "denazification" and reconstruction after
World War II.
The tray from Cassela Farbwerke
(Dye Factory) Mainkur Frankfurt/Main is inscribed
on the bottom
Dr. Ch. K.
Prof. Dr. Zck
Dr. Zck” is obviously Prof Dr. Werner
Zerweck, who went on to serve as the first post-war CEO of Farbwerke
1952. The other
initials are harder to
find on the Internet.
KICK-BACKS? NO WAY.
straight-arrow reputation formed early.
One of the German managers in one of the
plants Jim supervised was bribed in US dollars, which were illegal
tender in Germany
at the time. The
person offering the
bribe had no trouble with that, because he was visiting from American
of powerful interests. His
goal was to
get the manager to change the classification of dyestuffs to “damaged”. Germany
was the inventor and leading manufacturer of “coal-tar” or “aniline”
research into the byproducts of coal combustion in the steel industry
leading to the founding of a major branch of organic chemistry
generally. In any
event, getting these products labeled
“damaged” would have changed pricing and tariffs and generated 450 to
million (Jim, in 1950 dollars?!!) in profits for those driving the
man offering Jim’s manager the bribe had a powerful
law firm behind him and friends in Congress as well, all of whom threw
weight around, resulting in Jim being called onto the carpet before
Lucius Clay in Berlin. Clay was the father of the
Berlin Airlift and
rose from deputy to Eisenhower in 1945 to military governor of the U.S.
from 1947-1949, when he retired, so this event occurred in 1947-49. Jim had some of the
dollars used in the bribe
and recovered from the German civilian, which violated Clay’s own rules. Clay supported Jim and
ended the affair then
of BIO sketch based on interviews
Jim was a Federal Judge, but did not sit on a Circuit
Court. Perhaps he
served on the U.S.
District Court for the District of
Judge Harold H. Greene, who broke up
AT&T, served on that court, and Jim knew him personally.
retirement, Jim reviewed many cases to
support the court
in deciding procedural
matters (rulings on motions to dismiss an attorney or accept a
complaint as part of a lawsuit, or to accept a claim as suitable in
damages). Many of
these cases involved
investments and securities.
Tierney, ca. 1951
As busy as Jim was down
in the salt mines retrieving hidden documents for
the Nuremberg Trials, he
also managed to find and court his lifetime companion, Gwen,
only daughter in an American Army family that left for Germany in 1947.
and Gwen were married in Arlington, VA, 26 December 1953, a year or two
after Jim returned from Germany. He obtained a job as
attorney for the FCC, and became an administrative law judge with the
Federal Comminications Commission (a Presidential Appointment) in 1969.
Jim remained in the Reserves and rose to Lt. Colonel, a move
which gave Gwen PX and Commissary privileges.
retirement from the FCC, Jim served as an arbitartor with the National
Association of Securities Dealers (NASD); Cases
involved disputes between investors and the brokers handling their
money. The NASD is the self-policing arm of the NASDAQ (NASD
Automatic Quotation system--a computer network, not an open-call
marketplace with real people). The New York Stock
(NYSE; a real market taking place in a room) had a self-policing arm as
well. Both the NYSE and NASD self-regulators were combined
FINRA (Financial INdustry Regulatory Authority) in 2007.
The Authoritiy has been criticized from dropping the pursuit
violations as reflected in the drop in fines levied against violators
from nearly $150 million yearly to less than $50M/yr.
bottom & links to
BACKGROUND: Lend-Lease purchasing
Act was passed in March 1941. Washington
suddenly and unexpectedly terminated Lend-Lease on September 2, 1945.
B. Purvis was made chairman of the Anglo-French
Purchasing Board in the
That Board drove (or became) the British
Purchasing Commission. Representatives
of other Commonwealth countries had representatives on the Commission. Sir Clive Baillieu was
Director General of
the British Purchasing Commission (but
possibly only in Australia?)
J. Kaiser's Kaiser Shipbuilding company got a
contract to build so many troop ships that he needed a new shipyard in Richmond,
To prepare for constructing the new yard and the building
of ships that
would be much more complex than Liberty
ships, Clay Bedford opened a Kaiser office in New
York City in January 1942, and Dan
Peacock moved there
temporarily to start purchasing materials.
The old Liberty
of only 9,600 items, but the new C-4 troop transports would require a
complex purchasing program, because each C-4 needed about 130,000 items. Bedford and Peacock hired
Jim Tierney to
chief facilities engineer, and Harry
Bernat, the marine design engineer,
came to New York
designing the layout of the new California
Miller at Yale, 1943 - 1944
Miller enlisted and formed a band.
Officially, they were the 418th
Army Air Forces Band from the Technical
the Army Air Force Technical
Training Command stationed at Yale
University. Miller was in
charge of forming all the bands for the Army Air Force
Training Command. He surveyed the recruits
passing through Atlantic City
training to spot any musicians, and assigned the best to
On March 30, 1943, the 418th AAF Band settled
into their quarters at 58 Lake Place, the
former dormitories of Yale art students.
Three months later, they moved to
Durfee Hall in the Old Yale Quadrangle.
A twenty-four piece marching
band, which later grew to forty pieces, accompanied the
cadets to the New Haven Green for morning
review and evening retreat ceremonies.
BACKGROUND: Glenn Miller's
drummer, Moe Purtill & his wife Nance Flake
Red Norvo Orch ] b. March 31, 1908, Beardstown,
IL Theme Song:
"Mr. and Mrs.
Swing" (This song represented the
fact that the 'girl' vocalist, Mildred
Bailey, was also Red's wife.)
and Red co-directed their own orchestra during
the 1936 to 1939 years. Mildred, who was part Native American, was
of the two or three greatest pop and jazz singers of her day. Her
Al Rinker, one of
Boys'(along with Bing Crosby and Harry
Barris). Red had a great little band which finally
disbanded due to
friction between the sidemen and Red's wife.
was a soloist with the Paul Whiteman Orch in the
late 20's. By 1935, he had a sextet that was playing the Famous Door
NYC. By 1936, he was fronting a 'big' 10 piece band (really the
sextet) at the Syracuse
Hotel (Syracuse, NY).
The girl singer was Nance Flake, who later
married Moe Purtill, Red's drummer.
1938, Moe Purtill moved to the Glenn
Miller band and greatly invigorated it.
was still with Miller at Yale in 1943, when his wife had to be grilled
intelligence cadet James Tierney to asses her loyalty.
singer Nancy Flake left for Glenn Miller’s
orchestra, Mildred Bailey, Red's wife took over the singing chores for
band. A lot of tongues were
wagging when Red married
Mildred due to Red being a 'white' man and Mildred
was a Native American woman. Mildred's voice was
absolutely lovely, but the bandsmen found her not an easy person to get
top of this BIO page
a military burial at Arlington Cemetery
some Tierney family photos
background on IG
Farben industrial cartel which Jim prosecuted at
home for this Website
(such as it is)
Rev 13May09, 30Jul09 17Aug09 +2 photos of Jim in 1940s,
Rev Jan19 email, link to.german-hosiery-museum nylon/perlon story for 1951